The Spanish driver had recorded a top speed of 201.44 miles per hour (324.2 kilometers per hour) in the Toro Rosso car back in 2011, at the Buddh International Circuit.
To break the record, Patel went 4.9 mph (8 kph) quicker on the road relevant Audi R8 V10 Plus, clocking a fastest speed of 207.04 mph (333.2 kph) in Hyderabad's Outer Ring Road.
The five-lane, seven kilometer section of Hyderabad's ORR was closed off with the help of local authorities and deemed safe enough to perform the record breaking maneuver.
The Indian on his first run itself was able to set the quickest speed at the 3.1-mile (5.1-km) mark, with further 1.2 miles (2 km) still to go on the road, also bettering Audi's official claim of 205 mph (330 kph) top speed for its car.
"It's definitely a nice feeling to be the fast human on Indian soil though," quipped Patel to Motorsport.com.
Also present at the event were representatives from the Federation of Motor Sports Clubs of India (FMSCI) and the Limca Book of Records to officially certify the record breaking run.
The Audi India backed driver currently competes in the one-make Audi R8 LMS Cup and sits ninth in the standings after six rounds.